The project budget template is designed to help track expenses that you do not need to compare against multiple time periods. That being said you could copy the template and create a separate instance for each period you want to cover. This template does not use macros so does not requiring enabling content.
The budget categories can easily be added by just entering a new category in the space below and the formulas will autofill and the chart adjust to contain the new category. To remove a category you can delete the cells and adjust the table by pulling on the corner in the bottom right section of the table (in the overbudget column). This will re-size the data to ensure the chart is not pulling up blank values and making the chart show blank values.